Sunday, June 28, 2020

AP English Composition a rhetoric class without rhetoric

When it first crossed my mind that I might be able to rework the original version of The Critical Reader into a prep book for the AP English Language and Composition exam, one of the initial things I did was head over to the College Boards website and read the AP Comp course description. Id done some tutoring for the exam a few years back, but it wasnt a test Id been constantly immersed in, as was  the case for the old SAT. I also knew that in addition to changing the SAT, the College Board had planned overhauls for a number of AP exams. Interestingly, the AP English Comp test was not officially listed among them; however, as I read the description for 2014 and beyond, it became clear that the test had recently  undergone some important changes. To be sure, I knew that SAT Reading was being pared down to handful of concepts (the skills that matter most!). Nevertheless, I was a tad taken aback when I came across the following statement, nestled among endless paragraphs touting the importance of rhetorical reading: Growth in skills cannot be measured or assessed as students’ mastery of a vocabulary of rhetorical terms. While older versions of this course (including questions on the AP English Language and Composition Exam itself) relied on knowledge of terminology as a way of assessing student work, the AP English Language and Composition Exam has evolved to emphasize the appropriate application of such terminology in students’ analyses of texts. Any rhetorical terms that appear in this course are best situated as part of the teacher’s vernacular, not the students’. A rule of thumb for students’ vocabulary may be to reinforce language often heard in public discourse, or what we may call terms for functional rhetoric. These terms may include, but are not limited to context, appeals, purpose, audience, attitude, diction, and syntax. (AP English Language and Composition Course Description, p. 21) So essentially, the College Board is saying that AP English and Composition is a rhetoric course that should not include the actual teaching of rhetoric. Take a moment and try to wrap your head around that one.   Its unlikely anyone would argue that AP English Comp should consist of nothing more than memorizing dozens of obscure rhetorical figure (although Shakespeare, to cite one prominent example, doesnt seem to have had his creativity particularly stifled by that type of approach). I dont think, however, that that approach was ever emphasized  in American classrooms in the first place or at least it hasnt happened for a very long time. Arguing that students are only now  being saved from rote drilling is the flimsiest of straw men. This is essentially the application of a very misguided idea pushed to its logical extreme namely, that the learning of specific terms and pieces of information is not only the opposite of true learning (which is held to be  authentic or natural), but that acquiring this type of discrete knowledge actively  prevents true learning from occurring. Thus, in the service of promoting true learning, it is necessary to deprive students of knowledge. Reductio ad absurdum. Now, the College Board is at least willing to concede that teachers can have some knowledge of rhetorical terminology, but as for students well, it wouldnt be quite proper for students to learn anything beyond the basics. Never mind that learning that kind of thing was traditionally the entire point of the course. If this were a remedial class, that argument might  have some credibility, but by definition, the whole point of the AP program is to provide students with  advanced work.   This is kind of like insisting that students can master biology without memorizing the parts of a cell or the difference between a gene and a chromosome. As I wrote about a while back, memorization is a component of critical thinking, not its opposite. To suggest otherwise is a fallacy, a false dichotomy, and all sorts of other rhetorical/logical terms that people responsible for designing a college-level rhetoric and composition class should know about. Obviously – obviously – students should learn to apply their knowledge, but one cannot apply knowledge that one does not have!   Whether this is the work of true believers (of which I believe David Coleman is one) or merely a cynical ploy to further expand the appeal of AP Comp – already the most popular AP exam – while ensuring an acceptable number of students still pass is unclear. Most likely, it’s a combination of both. But either way, the philosophy of learning it promotes is deeply problematic.  You can argue about the real-world value of learning rhetorical devices until youre blue in the face, but as a general principle, teaching students less does not make them  more knowledgeable. Ignorance is ignorance, not knowledge. Thats just how  reality works. And eventually, reality has a  way of catching up with you.   I confess that I sometimes feel like a broken record saying these things, but I think its important to keep stating them publicly. When the driving philosophies of this powerful an educational organization are based on nonsense (albeit widely accepted nonsense), someone needs to call that out. Rhetoric is the language of textual  analysis, and rhetorical figures are the fundamental components of an analytical vocabulary. In their absence, there is simply no way to discuss a text with any degree of precision, to understand how it actually functions and what makes it effective (or not). Taking away that vocabulary impedes not only the’ ability to write about texts at an  advanced level, but the ability to even perceive how they work. Reading rhetorically and writing analytically are not natural acts   acquiring the  vocabulary is  inseparable from  acquiring the skill.   On one hand, the College Board asserts that students should learn to  write prose characterized by precise word choice and stylistic variation, and on the other it tries to deprive  them of the tools necessary to do those things. Clearly,  someone lacks a sense of irony.   But all  that said, lets  consider what this  means in terms of the AP Comp exam. On one hand, the College Boards statement is somewhat disingenuous. The rhetorical analysis  essay is still a prominent component of the test, and clearly, the stronger a rhetorical vocabulary you have, the better an essay you can write. That said, the de-emphasis of rhetorical figures means that provided you write a well-structured, easily comprehensible essay with a clear thesis, you can get away with a pretty superficial knowledge of rhetorical terminology. As long as you know the basics – simile, metaphor, diction, syntax, appeal to emotion (College Board favorite!) – you don’t need to worry about things like chiasmus, litotes, zeugma, and anadiplosis. So if you’re at all tempted to spend  these last few weeks before the exam trying to cram lists of rhetorical figures, you can put them aside and go study for AP Calc instead. The area in which the change is most significant is the multiple-choice reading. In  the past, the exam reliably featured questions that looked like this: In lines x-y, the author makes use of which  of the following (A) apostrophe (B) euphemism (C) antithesis (D) clichà © (E) metaphor Now, however, virtually all rhetorical strategy  questions have now been transformed into â€Å"purpose† or â€Å"function† questions, e.g. The author’s use of the analogy in lines x-y  primarily serves to (A) call attention to an exception  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (B) defend a claim  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (C) emphasize an ironic point of view   (D) evoke an emotion (E) appeal to the audience’s sense of justice While this question appears to revolve around the identification of a rhetorical figure (analogy), the reality is that it’s really asking about the larger point the lines containing the analogy serve to support or convey. Basically, if you can identify that information, the analogy itself is irrelevant. It is not necessary  to know what the rhetorical term means to answer the question. Yes, there are a handful of common terms that you need to know (anecdote, irony, metaphor, digression, generalization, assertion), but the more exotic stuff? Gone. Now, I was curious as to whether these changes have registered with the major test-prep publishers, so I took a trip to the bookstore (from which I am writing this post)  and checked out the  AP English Comp guides produced by four of the usual suspects: Princeton Review, Kaplan, McGraw Hill, and Barron’s. Sure enough, every single one included outdated  multiple-choice questions that directly tested more advanced rhetorical figures.  Clearly,  these changes have not been widely noted.   So if you are practicing with one of these books, please, please be aware that they give a misguided impression of what is actually on the exam in 2017.   Why do I get so worked about rhetoric? Well, if you’ll humor me, I’d like to offer a personal anecdote. People are often surprised to learn that I was never a straight-A student in English during high school. I mostly got an assortment of B-pluses and occasional A-minuses, but things never really seemed to gel for me. My English classes, like those at pretty much every other American high school, did not cover rhetorical terminology in any systematic way. I knew what similes and metaphors were of course, but beyond that, not much. At the same time, I couldnt really figure out just what my English teachers wanted. You know those kids who seem to just intuitively suss out what their teachers are looking for and give it to them? Well that wasn’t me. The whole business of analyzing various peoples writing was a mystery to me, even though I read a lot. The rules just seemed so fuzzy. Interestingly, my first real glimpse of the world of rhetoric came when I was studying for the AP English Comp test. My school did not offer a formal AP English class, but students  were encouraged to sign  up for the exam regardless. Having virtually no guidance about how to prep, I sat myself down with a dictionary of rhetorical figures. The sheer number and foreignness of them made me panic (how on earth was I supposed to learn all this?) but it also gave me a glimpse of a new way of thinking. This rhetoric stuff,  what was it really? Clearly it was important entire books had been dedicated to it.  But  if it was important, why  had my teachers been ignoring it for all these years? A few years later, during my junior-year abroad stint in the hyper-traditional French university system, where I studied basically nothing but rhetoric in my literature classes, I discovered that knowing lots of rhetorical terminology actually made analyzing things (not just a literature) a whole lot easier. I had always struggled to start papers: I never knew what to focus on, or how to develop an argument, or how to engage with a text on a word-by-word level. Learning about things like anaphora and parataxis and synecdoche gave me a language for approaching a text and describing what authors were doing; they allowed me to quickly understand how the parts of a text worked together to create a whole. All I had to do was start by describing how the language worked rhetorically, and I’d quickly find myself with a solid thesis. For someone who used to compulsively procrastinate and torture herself over getting started on pretty much every paper she had ever written, this was literally a life-altering development. But if that doesn’t persuade you, let me conclude by appealing to your sense of practicality: without a strong and varied set of tools for understanding how texts work, the range of things you can notice and discuss in your papers is greatly restricted. Discussing things takes up space – if you’re trying to fill five or 10 pages quickly, it helps to have lots of stuff to talk about. The more specific you can be, the easier a time you’ll have filling up space. Otherwise, you are basically stuck rehashing the content, describing in great detail the reader’s probable reactions, or using lots of adjectives to talk about how great the author’s work is (the major things that I see in students’ writing). That might fly in high school, but it probably  won’t work in college. That is not to say your college professors will expect you to discuss rhetorical figures in depth in your papers – with the possible exception of a freshman rhetoric class, they won’t – but it will greatly expand your ability to notice how arguments are put together and create readable, interesting prose. And that is also a skill you can apply to almost anything that involves reading and writing  in the real world, from writing a standout cover letter to soothing an angry colleague over email 3,000 miles away.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Health Is Not A Singular Concept Essay - 1249 Words

With almost any visit to a doctor the question will come up, â€Å"Have you been eating healthy?† Everyone would like to think so or at least impress the doctor by saying so, but the term â€Å"health† may contradict the stereotypical simple answer of eating fruit and vegetables and working out. In fact, doctors may even have the wrong impressions on health when giving their patients advice. Over three articles, different authors have shared their views on health, what it means, and how it affects our society. From these, I comprised my own definition for health. Health is not a singular concept. Rather, it affects an entire society, allowing everyone to access food filled with the necessary nutrients to sustain life. This definition though has no use unless it is able to be shared with large populations. Therefore, education and ease of implementation are the most critical parts of the definition of health because they allow the American citizens to put the values of h ealth into practice. From the arguments, the authors vary in their abilities to make convincing arguments based on how well their health plans are defined. The first author, Michael Pollan, establishes health as a societal term. He desires to create a healthy, utopian society by changing the way food is produced. In his argument in the article â€Å"Farmer in Chief,† Michael Pollan points out that â€Å"the health of a nation’s food system is a critical issue of national security.† This shows how seriously he takes America’sShow MoreRelatedCultural Competency And Awareness, Organization, And Skills1605 Words   |  7 Pages It is important to first define cultural competency, as the ability for health professionals to work in situations where their personal culture may not be identical to that of the patient they are interacting with (Blackburn, 2015). Unfortunately, there is no definitive definition utilized across professions (Suarez-Balcazar et al., 2011). This can make it difficult to pursue in both teaching it and evaluating it. In fact, this study will only touch on one method of evaluating cultural competenceRead MoreCrisis Management Communication Plan1291 Words   |  6 Pages(Roberts, 2005 ). Effective communication vitally important in health care setting. Ineffective or miscommunication in health care setting can lead to unnecessary death and serious Injury. In health care setting organization safety is generally define as freedom from accidental. Because the days of Hippocrates, the concept of ‘do not harm’ has been incorporate into Health care ethical practice. At the time of disaster effective communicationRead MoreConcepts of the Discipline of Nursing Essay1552 Words   |  7 PagesConcepts Central to the Discipline of Nursing In order to critically examine the concepts central to the discipline of nursing it is important to clarify my understanding of what constitutes a discipline. 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Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Notes On Leadership And Management Essay - 1372 Words

NS 3 Leadership and Management Short Essay #1 25134737 Date Submitted For the longest, most people have defined leadership as a noble trait, a defining quality of great people that we read in our history books, that we hear in the news, and that we try our very best to emulate. In the modern day, through various theories and ideas, we have justified the definition of leadership, not as a singular characteristic but, as a set of abilities utilized by one to influence followers towards a common set goal. Our society demands for both leaders and managers. I perceive my own leadership as a follower-serving, task-oriented manager rather than an authentic leader. A lot of people frequently make the wrong assumption that leaders and managers constitutes the polar regions of a leadership spectrum in which leaders are seen as â€Å"good† while managers are seen as â€Å"bad.† To answer this cognitive dilemma, managers are essentially leaders in their own terms, with different roles and responsibilities. While a leader’s role in an organization is to provide a vision and lead the team to that said-goal, is it the manager’s job to manage the details and specifics on how to achieve that vision. On page 9 of Enhancing Leadership, it is stated that: â€Å"leadership and management complement each other, and both are vital to organizational success.† Let us see the U.S. Navy as an example. A four-star admiral envisions a Navy that is able to project its power all over the globeShow MoreRelatedA Note On Leadership And Management Essay961 Words   |  4 Pagesto express my sincere appreciation to all the staff for your hard work in our company. As you know, the business has wound down because of the recent sluggish economy, and this would result in a workforce reduction. So, the board of directors and management of the corporation have to make a difficult and challenging decision that we need to lay 20% staff off to continue growing the company. We will consider carefully and make the appropriate decision, and this layoff does not show that the listed peopleRead MoreNotes On Management And Leadership1390 Words   |  6 PagesManagement and Leadership Sheryl Gregory, James Hummer, Dalton Kephart and Katrina McIntyre BMAL501-B04 Liberty University Management and Leadership OVERVEIW Leadership of today is different than what it was several years ago. In the past, â€Å"leadership† was more concerned with the bottom line than shaping the people and organization to ensure its continued success. Leadership and management are two very different topics; however, many people subscribe there is no differentiation. FromRead MoreNotes On Leadership And Management1494 Words   |  6 PagesLeadership versus Management 1. Define Management. Management is the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting; objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives, and measuring results. Management also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or for others within the organization. Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizationalRead MoreNotes On Leadership And Management888 Words   |  4 PagesMGMT IM153 Manufacturing Organization and Management. MAJOR PAPER LEADERSHIP and MANAGEMENT Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves. 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Leadership and Management The Experience(s) After this lecture I could reanalyze my previous experience as buyer, where the company use to incentive each Procurement Professional to be a leader of their â€Å"Families†. As buyer I did not use just to buy, but lead all strategy about the purchase of that segment for whole company in the country, even I was not a manager. This was a great experience. Moreover, as part of the strategy, we had to interact to the leaders (internal clients) ofRead MoreA Short Note On Bsn Nursing Leadership And Management Course962 Words   |  4 Pagescolleagues. I was able to see general qualities, but not a true appreciate for the importance of teamwork and the strengths that other team players bring to the table to support concerted efforts of the nursing profession. 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Thesis statement: The incorporation of transformational and participative leadership has made CH2MRead MoreEssay On Leadership Programs887 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Organizations offer leadership programs to assist employees to develop an array of leadership skills as they continue to develop the careers in the professional lives. Usually, these leadership development programs are usually established as part of a wider employee development programs. It is important to note that some companies prefer to offer career specific training programs while other organizations offer a general leadership competency programs that are focused on topics such

Friday, May 15, 2020

Immanuel Kant And The Principle Of Morality - 1279 Words

Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who argued that reason is the source of morality. He had a few categorical imperatives which consisted of universalizability, using people as an end in itself rather than as a means, and formulation of autonomy. In his imperative of universalizability, he strongly believed that an act is only morally right if it can be universalized and applied to every situation. For example, if it was morally right for someone to lie, then it should be morally right for everyone to lie. However, this would mean no one would believe anyone and therefore this would not work so lying cannot be universalized. In the imperative of using humanity as an ends, he believed that one should never use someone merely as a means†¦show more content†¦Random selection has no reason behind who gets treatment, and society would not benefit the most from this. Patients who may not respond to treatment could be selected and therefore more medical supplies would be wasted which isn t the greatest good. Individual prognosis of the chance of a treatment’s success would be better in the eyes of a utilitarian because it is better to provide medical supplies to patients who would actually benefit from it, rather on those whom might not respond to the treatment. Therefore, the greater good would be to use the medical rationing on people who need it and would benefit from it most, rather than those who would not. Alongside the success rate, another important factor utilitarians would like would be the quality of life the treatment ultimately gives a patient. If the quality of life is poor to the person who had received the treatment, not only did another person lose out on treatment but someone did not benefit and also wasted supplies. Therefore it’s a double loss and there is no greater utility which comes out of this situation. Utilitarians also agree that contributions to society must play a role in deciding who gets medical treatment. If someone had contributed greatly t o society and will continue to do so, they deserve treatment because this will lead to a greater utility for society. However, a criminal should not receive treatment because they do not provide anything beneficial to society and would likely commit moreShow MoreRelatedKantian Ethics And The Categorical Imperative Essay1581 Words   |  7 PagesAnalysis of Kantian Ethics and critiques In Elements of Pure Practical Reason Book, I, Immanuel Kant, a prominent late Enlightenment Era German philosopher discusses his most famous ethical theory, the â€Å"Categorical Imperative.† The â€Å"Categorical Imperative† is a proposed universal law in stating all humans are forbidden from certain actions regardless of consequences. Although this is the general definition of this ethical theory, the Categorical Imperative† exists in two above formulations, A strictRead MoreA Lie Is Not Moral Or Ethical Value1004 Words   |  5 Pagesdisrespectful. I believe, the purpose to a lie is achieving a goal at the expense of another. It holds no moral or ethical value. Human beings are entitled to be respect by others. A philosopher known as Immanuel Kant who established two rules called as categorical imperative under the deontology theory (Kant, 2008). Deontology is the obligation or duty to act (Mosser, 2013). The rules in categorical imperative are one shoul d act in a way that maxims resulting in action being a universal law and actRead MoreComparing David Hume and Immanuel Kant Essay1356 Words   |  6 PagesDavid Hume and Immanuel Kant David Hume and Immanuel Kant each made a significant break from other theorists in putting forward a morality that doesn’t require a higher being or god, for a man to recognize his moral duty. Although Hume and Kant shared some basic principals they differed on their view of morality. In comparing the different views on human will and the maxims established to determine moral worth by David Hume and Immanuel Kant, I find their theories on morality have some meritRead MoreThe Metaphysic Of Morals By Immanuel Kant1199 Words   |  5 Pagesthe Metaphysic of Morals by Immanuel Kant: A Reflection and Analysis Author name Name of institutionâ€Æ' In man’s attempt to figure out what is right or wrong, they have developed a number of systems that purportedly deal with such matters. Immanuel Kant expanded on his moral philosophy in his work, Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals. This paper will be a reflection upon Kantian ethical principles presented therein and their relation to what is generally called morality. People have tried to understandRead MoreThe concept of human nature focuses on the distinctive natural characteristics of humans, namely1500 Words   |  6 Pagesconcerning our variant attributes. Nevertheless, one philosopher, by the name of Immanuel Kant cannot be classified solely as religious, a realist, conservative or rational, as he seemingly wanted to move past the conventional polychotomy and his ideologies were representative of modern, Enlightened philosophy – a combined product of the numerous views of human nature proposed by his predecessors. The convictions of Kant in terms of human nature are referred to as the Copernican Revolution of PhilosophyRead MoreA Study Of Ethics By Immanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill992 Words   |  4 Pagesaround ethics. The court released Lavallee as innocent on the basis that she is medically ill with Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS). The two most renowned ethicists, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill would view this case differently. Kantianism is associated solely with Immanuel Kant. In comparison, John Stuart Mill, an opponent of Immanuel Kant’s ideas, uses a utilitarian approach. This essay will briefly give an overview of the case and the BWS. Then, it will show how both theories view the case.Read More Immanuel Kants Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals Essay1576 Words   |  7 PagesImmanuel Kants Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals In his publication, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant supplies his readers with a thesis that claims morality can be derived from the principle of the categorical imperative. The strongest argument to support his thesis is the difference between actions in accordance with duty and actions in accordance from duty. To setup his thesis, Kant first draws a distinction between empirical and â€Å"a priori† concepts. EmpiricalRead MoreEthical Decision Making Assignment1001 Words   |  5 Pagesgreatest happiness principle holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness† - John Stuart Mill. This particular quote refers to the utilitarian approach which states that in all our actions we must always strive to produce the greatest possible balance of good or evil. The utilitarian approach deals with consequences. It tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the har m done. Immanuel Kant was an importantRead MoreEssay on Role of Happiness in Ethical Decisions1209 Words   |  5 Pagesunderstanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason† (Kant 1). The usage of reason as a representation of one’s intellect is a common trait in the 21st century. Happiness, a positive emotion, tends to blur one’s judgement and coerces philosophers to look upon its relevance when formulating ethical decisions. When considering the role of emotion in ethical decisions, one must consider the contrasting views of Immanuel Kant, an 18th Prussian philosopher that focussed his philosophies aroundRead MoreKant And Mill : Morality As A Responsibility Towards Positive Impacts1578 Words   |  7 PagesBoth Kant and Mill describe morality as a responsibility towards positive impacts. Kant views morality as thought out actions leading to positive outcomes for others through means of using ones conscience (Kant, Immanuel, 2). Therefore, a person’s actions should result in a positive impact on others, and a person should think carefully before doing something to ensure that. Immorality as defined by Kant describes self-centered actions that do not benefit any other human being while Mill’s theory

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

My Vision And Goals Of My Life - 874 Words

I grew up in an under resourced, underdeveloped community where every day was as difficult as the last. These hardships shaped me to become the individual I am today. My vision and goals for the future are specifically influenced by the events that I witnessed and one of these events that took place in my country of origin, Lebanon. On the night of July 12, 2006, I woke up to the piercing cries of frightened children as bombs were targeting civilians and destroying the nation’s basic infrastructure. My family decided to head to the mountains in hopes of finding a safe shelter. On our way, I witnessed buildings collapse and dead bodies scattered on the streets. Suddenly, I heard an explosion and realize that the vehicle ahead of us had been†¦show more content†¦During times of war, we decided to seek a better life in the United States. My focus was to purse the American dream by achieving a higher education and provide a better quality of life for my family. However, b eing a first-generation college student, I experienced financial, academic, and motivational struggles. Conversely, through hard work and dedication, I was able to consistently earn a competitive GPA. Furthermore, I had to develop excellent organization and time management skills to find a way to balance work, academics, and personal responsibilities. Although I went through tough times, I let my hardships serve as a lesson and a reminder for me to stay focused and motivated to attain my goal. During my time in college, I volunteered in several settings. These experiences allowed me to gain exposure to people of various cultures and thus improve my ability to effectively communicate with individuals from different backgrounds. Volunteering also allowed me to experience the satisfaction of being able to selflessly give to others without expecting anything in return. 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Comparing McCarthyism and The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay

Authors used their literary work to get a point across to the public in the story The Crucible; Arthur Miller used events and characters to show the similarities to McCarthyism which was prevalent in the 1950s. McCarthyism was associated with the period in the United Sates also known as the Second Red Scare. McCarthyism is very similar in the way that Joe McCarthy accused Americans of being communist and in The Crucible people were being accused of being witches. It is known that Arthur Miller wrote this story as a reaction to a tragic time in our history. In both situations people were accused and were found guilty with not much proof. You would think that the judges would dismiss a case when there wasn’t much proof. In The Crucible†¦show more content†¦People lost their jobs and careers went bad and even imprisonment occurred. McCarthy held hearings called the Hollywood Blacklist, which had to do with The House Committee on Un-American Activities and anti- communist activities with the FBI. McCarthyism had great effects on different levels of society, involving conflict and many arguments. This relates to The Crucible in the sense that the way people were acting changed dramatically, different and weird because they knew or thought that witches were around. It destroyed people’s relationships, caused chaos in church and separation between people. People supported Abigail and Rev.Parris in different types of ways. For example when Abigail would say something and even when it was not true the girls would all follow her moves and lie for her. McCarthyism was supported by many different groups, including a lot of anti- communist organizations, there was no solid number for the victims of McCarthyism, and people who were imprisoned were around the hundreds and ten to twelve thousand lost their jobs. In The Crucible some were hung and many were being imprisoned nonstop and everyone was being called a witch, even with no proof. They searched for perverts and ended up i n thousands being harassed and denied employment. In The Crucible John Proctor and Abigail had a quiet affair andShow MoreRelatedThe Crucible By Arthur Miller Essay1646 Words   |  7 Pagesplays that came from the 1950s was Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. During a time when the U.S. was worried of communism taking over, Miller released The Crucible, which helped to capture the hysteria that was occurring. The play presents itself as a metaphor for the House of Un-American Activities Committee that was created during the Cold War when communism was spreading, but Miller never actually referenced it in the play. Although Arthur Miller’s The Crucible is set in the late 1600s, it offersRead MoreThe Crucible By Comparing The Salem Witch Trials1431 Words   |  6 Pagesnation, and Arthur Miller became a victim of McCarthyism. 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Miller uses his characters in a strict way to develop his allegory of the Puritan intolerance. Strongly implanted by Miller, his theme of intolerance demonstrates what thoughts spring to life and what he is trying to put forth. In Arthur Miller’s The Crucible, Miller uses his charactersRead More Analyze how Arthur Miller creates dramatic tension at the end of Act 31300 Words   |  6 PagesAnalyze how Arthur Miller creates dramatic tension at the end of Act 3 of The Crucible. During this essay, I will be explaining how Arthur Miller creates dramatic tension at thee end of Act 3 of his novel, The Crucible. I will be organizing this essay in paragraphs by points. 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Easyjet Marketing free essay sample

Company name, short presentation and Product Description Identify the product category and describe all the characteristics of this category of product. Describe the product; you need to cover all the elements (core benefit, actual product and augmented product) Easyjet is a low-cost airline with headquarters in Londons Luton Airport. Its owned by EasyJet Holding Limited, whos CEO is Stelios Haji-Jannou. EasyJet operates 580 routes around all of Europe and 104 between Europe and airports in northern Africa. The company sells its own tickets directly to the user trough the Internet and by phone, without the need of requiring the services of third party companies, such as travel agencies. In spite of this, they allow other websites specialized in plane tickets booking (Eg. Edreams) to sell their tickets. EasyJets business model relies on subcontract arrangements for most of the services that the company needs to provide to its costumers. The plane ticket only gives you the right to have a seat, but all the other services that regular airlines would include in the regular fee are not given to the EasyJet costumer. Food and drinks are charged for, the ticket is given to the user for him to print at home, there are no different classes with a variable fee and the seats are not assigned. In contrast with the other low-cost airlines, Easyjet gets to the main European airports, yet, like most of them, charges for any piece of luggage other than handbags. In Spain, they have subcontracted the check in, luggage checking services and ramp services. Nowadays, EasyJet owns 183 Boeing 737-700 planes. By using only one plane model, the company benefits from discounts in mass production with the anufacturers. In terms of marketing, most of the market strategy is based on the image of being allowed to fly simply with a pair of jeans. The first campaign they launched was simply to tag their planes with the companys booking phone number on an orange color. EasyJet has used plenty slogans since it was first stablished and the current one is â€Å"We go, we get back†, which gives us a fresh and joyful im age of the company. 2. Who is the target consumer? Describe the consumer’s profile you think the product is aimed to; use as many variables as possible to be accurate. EasyJet’s costumer base is composed, essentially, of young travelers (interested in the low-cost offer) and professionals with an entrepreneurial profile, intermediate charges and low charges (who’s contracting company is interested in reducing travelling costs). Nowadays, young travellers represent 60% of EasyJet’s costumers. The other 40% is composed of professionals and other travellers. In spite of that, the business-travelling sector has a growing demand of EasyJet services. Most of EasyJet’s travellers are either U. K or Ireland nationals. Lately, the company has developed important marketing campaigns in order to penetrate other European countries in order to augment it’s costumer base. Profile segmentation: †¢ Geographic: Easyjet customers are from all of Europe and Morocco. †¢ Demographic: Young people traveling for pleasure and professionals and intermediate charges. †¢ Psychographic: Lower-middle class. EasyJet is making a strong ofensife to argue to their coustomers that used their service for a business mater, because of this, decides to sell their tickets in travel agencies specialized in this corporate segment, as El Corte Ingles Viajes, Globalia o Orizona. 3. What are the mediums used by the company to reach the consumer? Analyze the promotion mix and distribution channels. The main medium used by EasyJet to reach it’s consumer is the Internet. This is due to the fact that, as we’ve already said, 60% of it’s clients are youg and, therefore, Internet is the best way to penetrate it’s base clients and make EasiJet’s products and promotions known to them. The company is strongly leaning towards ans Internet-based model, as is proved by the launching, in the last years, of business unities such as EasyInternet (business cafes where the clients can connect to the Internet with strongly reduced fees), EasyRentaCar (an Internet car rental service), EasyCruise (cruising service) and some other services (such as hotel room booking). The main markets for EasyJet , such as France, Italy, Switzerland, germany and the United Kingdom, will count, as well, with a campain that combines television ads, outdoor, online media and ofline media. The main channels throu wich EasyJet reaches it’s target audience are: †¢ Online Advertising †¢ Billboards †¢ Video sales promotion †¢ Seasonal deals †¢ Coupon codes †¢ Word of mouth 4. Identify max. 2 competitors and compare their products with your (actual and augmented product elements) The mainly competitors that Easyjet has are Ryanair, the most directly, and looking in the Europe market, Germanwings, a company from Germany, its maybe another of the competitor, not as directly as Ryanair is. Talking about Ryanair, a company that has a lot of troubles in this moments with critics for some possibles low controls and low levels of security in their flights, es an airline that establish some consolidation as the principal in this model of the low cost, maybe the most controversy in this moments, with a president that is now communed to see on the channel news because he always use the interviews or the conferences because of a problem, as a way to delivered a free advertisement for the company he runs. Ryanair is characterized of delivered a transportation service in a real low cost, but that implicate some additional cost that might reach a price of a regular company, if you use all the â€Å"additional they add†. On the other side we have Germanwing, an airline that was created in 2002. Lufthansa owns One quarter of the company capital, and their tripulation followed the preparation and the courses offered by this airline. It operates on 67 different destinies in Europe, and is now in a expansion process, starting to compete directly with Easyjet or Ryanair. Its clearly impossible to compared some companies that are already with a consolidation in their market target that cost them years of work, like Ryanair or EasyJet, with an emerging company like Germanwings, but its important to stand out the growth this company is having continuously, and they are making a way to be able in a long term to stay competing in this really complex market. This companies named before, offered the same service, low cost transportation, characterize for sell tickets in a really cheap range of price that companies like Iberia or British Airway couldn’t reach to offers. The reason or this is that the costs this companies absorb are a lot higher because the service they sell includes all the â€Å"additional† services the low cost companies sell like an optional to each client. This model of low cost offers low quality in their general services (something that might be improvable), but based in a massive selling amount to reach real benefits. And in this particular moment of crisis, the affluence of passengers that evaluate the price to decide the ticket to buy is even higher. Looking at the main differences between this three companies, EasyJet and Ryanair are the ones that offered a better price, compare with Germanwings, this is clearly related to the market shared they owned. Because the first two are the main ones in this market, can assume lower range of benefit per ticket sold, something that a company in emerging process cant affords. Another primary difference is the benefit they give to their customers. Ryanair is the leading in lower price, taking aside the quality of the offered service, and even because of that they don’t stop increasing their selling levels (with no good explanation). EasyJet is the more complete company, keeping standard levels, characterized for having a medium level of service, with low price and a satisfaction level with a upward trend. And last but not least is Germanwings, characterized because of the comfort they offer to their customers, something hard to offered in this model of companies because they reduce the seats they have because of the comfort they want to offer. 5. Evaluate positive and negative reviews about your product found on Internet. You need to mention all the sources used and links, even if you don’t find reviews or ratings, you need to mention sources. The criticism we’ve seen being made to EasyJet is not based on regular practices of a particular kind, like the example of their main competitor Ryanair, that has criticism and legal problems involving almost every activity they develop, especially in security matters. EasyJet is not as involved as Ryanair in that many troubles, even thou it involves a whole group that offers more than just air transportation, but we will evaluate just this service. In this point of view, the company just has some specific cases of problems, involving some discrimination. Generalizing, they have some particular services in their check in process or in their buying web page that gives them trouble. In our search, we consider that the following articles are the ones that describe in a perfect way the criticism we found: †¢ â€Å"EasyJets flight times mean keeping an eye on your emails† †¢ â€Å"EasyJets passport rule creates a no-fly zone† †¢ â€Å"Double trouble from easyJets in-flight payment glitch† †¢ â€Å"easyJet accused of discriminating against disabled passengers† We always found problems on their accomplishment in the service, something that is a characteristic in the low-cost model, but in order to deliver or establish correctly is a consequence that is important to be able to tolerate. These characteristics are the use of the fuel in the limits of the law (this involves some troubles with the emergency landing because of any unexpected situation in the fly), the higher price they charge if people wants what they consider additional (like luggage checking), and sometimes the total price might be even higher than the ones offered by companies that don’t adopt the low-cost model. But in general terms, the company doesn’t accumulate too many bad critics. Maybe this model is currently not as good as it might be. It definitely could be served in a better way but, in the moments we live today, the price is a primary detail for the decision process of the consumer. Talking about their positive criticism, the company has a lot of good reviews when they involve the project that is being planed for the future, as a company with a balance well structured, a better way of delivering and managing their resources, etc. Sometimes it also reaches some statistics that might be a little surprising, as it is their profitability in Spain, considering the relation between the total profit they had, and the number of airplanes in their float. Something that is not easy to imagine considering that their competitor Ryanair is the fourth in this list, even underneath Vueling. †¢ â€Å"easyJet beats expectations† †¢ EasyJet Corporate results †¢ â€Å"Iberia, Air Europa y Air Berlin: top 3 en facturacion por avion† 6. After this research propose an action to increase sales. You need to justify your proposal. As weve seen thru the analysis of the EasyJet business model, the main target to which the company aims to is a youthful an easygoing costumer that seeks to have a fun time but is not willing to spend a lot of money in order to cover its travel expenses. We have also seen that the main problems that EasyJet (as plenty of the low-cost airlines) faces have to do with the public perception of low-cost model. As word of mouth tells us, EasyJet is grouped with a couple of airlines that are perceived as being a â€Å"necessary evil†. As such, a big amount of costumers trend to require EasyJet services with the resignation of having to deal with all the inconveniences that traveling with these kind of companies supposes. In order to identify these perceived inconveniences, we have to rely on the commentaries that the users emit. Costumers opinion is one of the most valuable set of information that companies tan have, so the first thing we would recommend, in a plan that aims to improve costumers perception of EasyJets traveling service, to create an easy communication channel that allows users to report on the service. These reports can be recompensed with discounts on beverages, food and luggage checking. This wouldn’t just be a way to assemble a better data bank, as it can also be a way to engage the costumer in a direct relationship with EasyJets brand. By using the information we have already gathered so far, we are able to say that the main issue costumers report is the bad experience that traveling in low-cost airlines supposes. This particular problem is hard to deal with, since the uncomfortable situation that EasyJets users tell us about in their comments are due to some of the basic characteristics that makes the low-cost model a successful one. This problem turns into a worst one when it comes to the particular case of the company that interests us, because of it being a solid company in financial terms. Therefore, efforts should be made in order to improve user experience of the service wile retaining the elements that make it a successful business. Some general practices are easy to deal with. One good practice that weve seen being performed by rivaling companies with a similar business model is relying on the crew to create a fun experience by original ways of delivering the classical features of the service. One example of this is delivering safety instructions in the form of a rap. This has been done by companies in the U. S market and it enables costumers to get a brief distraction from the regular stress that traveling imposes on us. One possible variation of this is to deliver safety instructions with a choreography performed by the crew. Both of these practices are a tiny step that, grouped with actions training that helps EasyJets crew deliver better costumer attention, can make a difference on the perception that consumers have of this brand. This is not only due to the word of mouth, but also to the constant flow of free advertising that might be delivered trough social networks such as YouTube, Facebook or Instagram, in which users can upload images of the performances EasyJet delivers. Another good action, to continue in line with these enhancements, might be seasonal campaigns in the form of happenings that can be conformed into viral advertising. One example of this was delivered by the now defunct spanish company Spanair. In a winter flight, the airline had a crew member announce to all the children that were in that flight that Santa had made a visit to the plane and left a couple of messages to them, as well as gifts. The video made for this campaign went viral on networks such as YouTube, giving the brand a presence on the web and also giving a great image of its services. This particular campaign, of course, doesn’t have to be replicated, given that EasyJet’s main costumer profile is young singles and couples without children. Therefore, the model should be adapted to adjust to the sort of clients that a low-cost airline is interested in, but by giving these performances a regular presence and attaching them to the services they provide, their public image might be enhanced. With small actions like these, an already great company might be turned into an even better one with fairly small investment and little to non modification of its business model. Maintaining Internet as their main advertising medium and using it in order to gain better public perception can turn into a successful move by EasyJet. Videos: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=TTsieCm8n8M http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=Lqh8e2KYIrU http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=DYA_ivyj3kE